Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
12 Months Ended
Dec. 28, 2019
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Fiscal Year. The Company uses a 52 or 53 week fiscal year ending on the last Saturday in December. Fiscal 2019, 2018 and 2017 ended December 28, 2019, December 29, 2018 and December 30, 2017, respectively. Fiscal 2019, 2018 and 2017 each consisted of 52 weeks.
Principles of Consolidation. The consolidated financial statements include the Company’s accounts and those of its wholly-owned subsidiaries. Upon consolidation, all inter-company accounts and transactions have been eliminated.
Reclassification. Certain prior period amounts have been reclassified to conform to current period presentation.
Use of Estimates. The preparation of consolidated financial statements in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP) requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of commitments and contingencies at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Actual results are likely to differ from those estimates, and such differences may be material to the financial statements. Areas where management uses subjective judgment include, but are not limited to, revenue allowances, inventory valuation, valuation and impairment of goodwill and deferred income taxes.
Basis of Presentation. Effective in the first quarter of 2018, the Company adopted Accounting Standard Update (ASU) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (ASC 606), using the full retrospective method, which required the Company to adjust prior reporting periods presented. The 2017 amounts presented in the consolidated financial statements and notes to the consolidated financial statements were previously adjusted in the Company’s 2018 Form 10-K to reflect the retrospective application.
Revenue Recognition. Revenue is recognized when a customer obtains control of promised goods or services and is recognized in an amount that reflects the consideration which the Company expects to receive in exchange for those goods or services. Sales, value-added, and other taxes collected concurrently with the provision of goods or services are excluded from revenue. Shipping and handling costs associated with product sales are included in cost of sales.
Nature of products and services
The Company’s microprocessors (CPUs), chipsets, graphics processing unites (GPUs), data center and professional graphics products, accelerated processing units (APUs), server and embedded processors, and System-on-Chip (SoC) products may be sold as standard non-custom products, or custom products manufactured to customers’ specifications. The Company also provides development services and licenses portions of its intellectual property (IP) portfolio.
Non-custom products: The Company transfers control and recognizes revenue when non-custom products are shipped to customers, which includes original equipment manufacturers (OEM) and distributors, in accordance with the shipping terms of the sale. Certain OEMs may be entitled to rights of return and rebates under OEM agreements. The Company also sells to distributors under terms allowing the majority of distributors certain rights of return and price protection on unsold merchandise held by them. The Company estimates the amount of variable consideration under OEM and distributor arrangements and, accordingly, records a provision for product returns, allowances for price protection and rebates based on actual historical experience and any known events.
The Company offers incentive programs to certain customers, including cooperative advertising, marketing promotions, volume-based incentives and special pricing arrangements. Where funds provided for such programs can be estimated, the Company recognizes a reduction to revenue at the time the related revenue is recognized; otherwise, the Company recognizes such reduction to revenue at the later of when: i) the related revenue transaction occurs; or ii) the program is offered. For transactions where the Company reimburses a customer for a portion of the customer’s cost to perform specific product advertising or marketing and promotional activities, such amounts are recognized as a reduction to revenue unless they qualify for expense recognition.
Custom products: Custom products which are associated with the Company’s Enterprise, Embedded, and Semi-Custom segment (semi-custom products), sold under non-cancellable purchases orders and which have no alternative use to the Company
at contract inception, are recognized as revenue, based on the value of the inventory and expected margin, over the time of production of the products by the Company. Sales of semi-custom products are not subject to a right of return.
Development and intellectual property licensing agreements: From time to time, the Company may enter into arrangements with customers that combine the provision of development services and a license to the right to use the IP. These arrangements are deemed to be single or multiple performance obligations based upon the nature of the arrangements. Revenue is recognized upon the transfer of control, over time or at a point-in time, depending on the nature of the arrangements.
Customers are generally required to pay for products and services within the Company’s standard contractual terms, which are typically net 30 to 60 days. The Company has determined that it does not have significant financing components in its contracts with customers.
Inventories. Inventories are stated at standard cost adjusted to approximate the lower of actual cost (first-in, first-out method) or estimated net realizable value. The Company adjusts inventory carrying value for estimated excess and obsolescence equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated net realizable value based upon assumptions about anticipated or forecasted demand, estimates of future selling prices, competitiveness of product offerings, market and industry conditions, customer requirements and product life cycles. The Company fully reserves for inventories and non-cancellable purchase orders for inventory deemed obsolete. The Company performs periodic reviews of inventory items to identify excess inventories on hand by comparing on-hand balances to anticipated usage using recent historical activity as well as anticipated or forecasted demand. If estimates of customer demand diminish further or market conditions become less favorable than those projected by the Company, additional inventory adjustments may be required.
Goodwill. The Company performs its goodwill impairment analysis as of the first day of the fourth quarter of each year and, if certain events or circumstances indicate that an impairment loss may have been incurred, on a more frequent basis. The analysis may include both qualitative and quantitative factors to assess the likelihood of an impairment.
Qualitative factors include industry and market consideration, overall financial performance, share price trends and market capitalization and Company-specific events. The Company first analyzes qualitative factors. If the Company concludes it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit exceeds its carrying amount, the Company does not proceed to perform a quantitative impairment test.
If the Company concludes it is more likely than not that the fair value of the reporting unit is less than its carrying value, a quantitative goodwill impairment test will be performed by comparing the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. A quantitative impairment analysis, if necessary, considers the income approach, which requires estimates of the present value of expected future cash flows to determine a reporting unit’s fair value. Significant estimates include revenue growth rates and operating margins used to calculate projected future cash flows, discount rates, and future economic and market conditions.
A goodwill impairment charge is recognized for the amount by which the reporting unit’s fair value is less than its carrying value. Any loss recognized should not exceed the total amount of goodwill allocated to that reporting unit.
Commitments and Contingencies. From time to time the Company is a defendant or plaintiff in various legal actions that arise in the normal course of business. The Company is also subject to income tax, indirect tax or other tax claims by tax agencies in jurisdictions in which it conducts business. In addition, the Company is a party to environmental matters including local, regional, state and federal government clean-up activities at or near locations where the Company currently or has in the past conducted business. The Company is required to assess the likelihood of any adverse judgments or outcomes to these matters as well as potential ranges of reasonably possible losses. A determination of the amount of reserves required for these commitments and contingencies that would be charged to earnings, if any, includes assessing the probability of adverse outcomes and estimating the amount of potential losses. The required reserves, if any, may change due to new developments in each matter or changes in circumstances such as a change in settlement strategy.
Cash Equivalents. Cash equivalents consist of financial instruments that are readily convertible into cash and have original maturities of three months or less at the time of purchase.
Accounts Receivable. Accounts receivable are primarily comprised of trade receivables presented net of rebates, price protection and an allowance for doubtful accounts. Accounts receivable also include unbilled receivables, which primarily represent work completed on semi-custom products under non-cancellable purchase orders that have no alternative use to the Company at contract inception, for which revenue has been recognized but not yet invoiced to customers. The Company maintains an allowance for doubtful accounts based on its assessment of the collectability of amounts owed by customers. The allowance consists of known specific troubled accounts as well as an amount based on overall estimated potential uncollectible accounts receivable based on historical experience.
Investments in Available-for-sale Debt Securities. The Company classifies its investments in debt securities at the date of acquisition as available-for-sale. Available-for-sale debt securities are reported at fair value with the related unrealized gains and losses included, net of tax, in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss), a component of stockholders’ equity. Realized gains and losses and declines in the value of available-for-sale debt securities determined to be other than temporary are included in other expense, net. The cost of securities sold is determined based on the specific identification method.
The Company classifies investments in available-for-sale debt securities with maturities of more than three months at the time of purchase as marketable securities on its consolidated balance sheets. Classification of these securities as current is based on the Company’s intent and belief in its ability to sell these securities and use the proceeds from sale in operations within 12 months.    
Derivative Financial Instruments. The Company maintains a foreign currency hedging strategy which uses derivative financial instruments to mitigate the risks associated with changes in foreign currency exchange rates. This strategy takes into consideration some of the Company’s consolidated exposures. The Company does not use derivative financial instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
In applying its strategy, the Company uses foreign currency forward contracts to hedge certain forecasted revenue and expenses denominated in foreign currencies. The Company designates these contracts as cash flow hedges of forecasted revenue and expenses, to the extent eligible under the accounting rules, and evaluates hedge effectiveness prospectively and retrospectively. To the extent such hedges are effective, the Company records the gain or loss on these contracts as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) and it reclassifies such gains or losses to earnings in the same period during which the hedged transaction affects earnings. Such amounts are included in the same line item in earnings as the associated forecasted transaction.
The Company also uses, from time to time, foreign currency forward contracts to economically hedge recognized foreign currency exposures on the balance sheets of various subsidiaries. The Company does not designate these forward contracts as hedging instruments. Accordingly, the gain or loss associated with these contracts is immediately recorded in Other expense, net.
Property and Equipment. Property and equipment are stated at cost. Depreciation and amortization are provided on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the assets. Estimated useful lives are as follows: equipment uses two to six years, and leasehold improvements are measured by the shorter of the remaining terms of the leases or the estimated useful economic lives of the improvements.
Leases. The Company determines if an arrangement is a lease, or contains a lease, at the inception of the arrangement. When the Company determines the arrangement is a lease, or contains a lease, at lease inception, it then determines whether the lease is an operating lease or a finance lease. Operating and finance leases result in the Company recording a right-of-use (ROU) asset and lease liability on its balance sheet. ROU assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Operating and finance lease ROU assets and liabilities are initially recognized based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. In determining the present value of lease payments, the Company uses the implicit interest rate if readily determinable or when the implicit interest rate is not readily determinable, the Company uses its incremental borrowing rate. The incremental borrowing rate is not a commonly quoted rate and is derived through a combination of inputs including the Company’s credit rating and the impact of full collateralization. The incremental borrowing rate is based on the Company’s collateralized borrowing capabilities over a similar term of the lease payments. The Company utilizes the consolidated group incremental borrowing rate for all leases as the Company has centralized treasury operations. The operating lease ROU asset also includes any lease payments made and excludes any lease incentives. Specific lease terms may include options to extend or terminate the lease when the Company believes it is reasonably certain that it will exercise that option. Lease expense for operating lease payments is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. As allowed by the guidance, the Company has elected not to recognize ROU assets and lease liabilities that arise from short-term (12 months or less) leases for any class of underlying asset. Operating leases are included in operating lease ROU assets, other current liabilities, and long-term operating lease liabilities on the Company’s consolidated balance sheet. The Company’s finance leases are immaterial.
Product Warranties. The Company generally warrants that its products sold to its customers will conform to its approved specifications and be free from defects in material and workmanship under normal use and conditions for one year. The Company may also offer one to three-year limited warranties based on product type and negotiated warranty terms with certain customers. The Company accrues warranty costs to Cost of sales at the time of sale of warranted products.
Foreign Currency Translation/Transactions. The functional currency of all of the Company’s foreign subsidiaries is the U.S. dollar. Assets and liabilities denominated in non-U.S. dollars have been remeasured into U.S. dollars at current exchange rates for monetary assets and liabilities and historical exchange rates for non-monetary assets and liabilities. Non-U.S. dollar denominated transactions have been remeasured at average exchange rates in effect during each period, except for those cost of sales and expense
transactions related to non-monetary balance sheet amounts which have been remeasured at historical exchange rates. The gains or losses from foreign currency remeasurement are included in earnings.
Marketing and Advertising Expenses. Advertising costs are expensed as incurred. In addition, the Company’s marketing and advertising expenses include certain cooperative advertising funding obligations under customer incentive programs, which costs are recorded upon agreement with customers and vendor partners. Cooperative advertising expenses are recorded as marketing, general and administrative expense to the extent the cash paid does not exceed the estimated fair value of the advertising benefit received. Any excess of cash paid over the estimated fair value of the advertising benefit received is recorded as a reduction of revenue. Total marketing and advertising expenses for 2019, 2018 and 2017 were approximately $217 million, $176 million and $156 million, respectively.
Stock-Based Compensation. The Company estimates stock-based compensation cost for stock options at the grant date based on the option’s fair value as calculated by the lattice-binomial option-pricing model. For time-based restricted stock units, fair value is based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the grant date. The Company estimates the grant-date fair value of restricted stock units that involve a market condition using the Monte Carlo simulation model. The Company estimates the grant-date fair value of stock to be issued under the ESPP using the Black-Scholes model. Compensation expense is recognized over the vesting period of the applicable award using the straight-line method, except for the compensation expense related to PRSUs, which are recognized ratably for each vesting tranche from the service inception date to the end of the requisite service period. Forfeiture rates are estimated at the time of grant and revised, if necessary, in subsequent periods if actual forfeitures differ from those estimates.
Income Taxes. The Company computes the provision for income taxes using the liability method and recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for temporary differences between financial statement and income tax bases of assets and liabilities, as well as for operating loss and tax credit carryforwards. The Company measures deferred tax assets and liabilities using tax rates applicable to taxable income in effect for the years in which those tax assets are expected to be realized or settled and provides a valuation allowance against deferred tax assets when it cannot conclude that it is more likely than not that some or all deferred tax assets will be realized. In addition, the Company recognizes tax benefits from uncertain tax positions only if it expects that its tax positions are more likely than not that they will be sustained, based on the technical merits of the positions, on examination by the jurisdictional tax authority. The Company recognizes any accrued interest and penalties to unrecognized tax benefits as interest expense and income tax expense, respectively.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Leases. In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842), to increase transparency and comparability among organizations for lease recognition and disclosure. This standard requires lessees to recognize lease assets and lease liabilities on the balance sheet, while recognizing expenses on the income statements in a manner similar to legacy guidance. The Company adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2019, using the optional modified retrospective approach, which did not require an adjustment to comparative period financial statements, and recorded $228 million of right-of-use assets and $261 million of lease liabilities primarily related to office buildings on its consolidated balance sheet as of December 30, 2018. The Company’s accounting for capital leases, now referred to as finance leases, remains unchanged. The adoption of the new standard had no impact on the Company’s consolidated statement of operations or on net cash provided by or used in operating, financing, or investing activities on its consolidated statement of cash flows.
Upon adoption of ASU 2016-02, the Company elected a transition practical expedient under the new accounting standard allowing it not to separate lease and non-lease components and instead to account for each separate lease component and non-lease component as a single lease component. The Company implemented internal controls and key system functionality to enable the preparation of financial information on adoption.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Financial Instruments. In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326), Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. This standard changes the methodology for measuring credit losses on financial instruments and the timing of when such losses are recorded. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, using a modified retrospective adoption method. The Company will adopt this standard in the first quarter of 2020 and the adoption will not have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
Income Taxes. In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes. This standard simplifies the accounting for income taxes by eliminating certain exceptions to the guidance in Topic 740 related to the approach for intraperiod tax allocation, the methodology for calculating income taxes in an interim period and the recognition of deferred tax liabilities for outside basis differences. The new guidance also simplifies aspects of the accounting for franchise taxes and enacted changes in tax laws or rates and clarifies the accounting for transactions that result in a step-up in the tax basis of goodwill and allocating consolidated income taxes to separate financial statements of entities not subject to income tax. ASU 2019-12 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with early adoption permitted. Upon adoption, the Company must apply certain aspects of this standard retrospectively for all periods presented while other aspects are applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the beginning of the fiscal year of adoption. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
Although there are several other new accounting pronouncements issued by the FASB, the Company does not believe any of these accounting pronouncements had or will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.